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Gentleman's Magazine ,

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Hiftorical Chronicle.

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Prodesse & Delectare

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Printed for D, Henry, and R. Cave, at St John’s Gats*

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Dire&ions to the Book-Binder.

Bind up the Title Page with the Contents to each Month :

Take the General Title and Preface from the Supplement, and

place them before January.

Directions for placing the Plates.






X. January. South -‘eaft View of the Middlefex Hofpital XX. A Monument Plate

III. February. Plate XII. of Shells

IV. A Map of that Part of America that lies at the Back of Albany V* March. A Phyfical Planifphere (a whole Sheet)

VI. April. Plate XIII. of Shells

VII. Four Views of the ruinous Condition of St Catherine's Tower, in the Ifle of

Wight. Aifo, a View of the Temple of the Eight Winds, at Athens 1 76

VIII. May. Plate XIV. of Shells 200

IX. Two Roman Altars 220

X. June. A correft Map of Weftphalia 231

XI. July. A Map of the Country thro’ which the Ruffians marched

!XII. —A Map ot the Mouth of the Ganges ; fhewing the Englifh and French Settle¬ ments on that River 428

XIII. August. A Plan of the Battle of Haftenbeck, and a Map of the adjacent

Countiy ^ 7 6

XIV. A Reprefentation of the Buccinum Ampullatum, &c. 364

XV. September. A Draught of the Road and Harbour of Breft, with all the

Soundings 5

XVI. October. Four Views of a non-defcript Shell 452'

XVII. A Map of the Ifiand of Corfica 448

XVIII. November. A Map of the French Coaft about Rochfort ; with the Hies

of Rhee, Aix, and Oleron 4^2

-A Mifcellaneous Plate



XX. December. Reprefentation of a new Way of making Artificial Magnets 540

XXI. A Map of Upper Saxony, and Part of Pomerania 574

XXII. Supplement. A large whole Sheet Map of England and Wales $ fhewing the principal Roads, &c.


P R E F A C E.

OU R periodical addrefs to the public, upon finifhing our annual volume, has now been repeated Six and Twenty Times, and it has every year become lefs necedary, and more difficult : iefs neceffary, becaufe we had no new plan to propofe, and becaufe the manner in which we executed our ori¬ ginal deiign, and fulfilled our engagements to our readers, became more and more generally known j more difficult, becaufe we were hill compelled to vary our expreffion and manner of addrefs, when the fubjedt and the fentiment could not but be extremely fimilar, if not exadly the fame. Among other fuhjeds which have invariably occurred in our preface, during the long continuance of this periodical work, we mud reckon the number of competitors that have by turns darted up, bludered, vanifhed, and been forgotten. Several of thefe com¬ petitors have endeavoured to gain the attention of the public, by dignifying their works with fome pompous name ; many of them have been Grand , and many TJni'verfal ; fome have recommended themfelves, by propofing a more extenfive plan ; fome, by boading more ability and greater diligence ; and fome by pro- feffing to increafe the quantity of their performance, without increafing the price. Eut the public has hitherto determined, that thefe arts have been fallacious, and therefore, hitherto they have been unfuccefsful. A founding title is almod a certain fign of a mean performance ; as in country fairs the bumkins are invited to fee a monkey or a puppet, by the found of a trumpet, and perpetual excla¬ mations of Walk in. Gentlemen ; the wonder of the world is here.'* Thofe who have propofed a work upon a better plan, have not been thought to produce any thing fupenor, to ours, the fuccefs of which brought their perform¬ ance into being. Thofe who have boaded greater ability and diligence, have often fhewn their impoter.ee, even in their advertifement ; and, in the work, have been diligent only to bring together, in a new book, what was feat te red among the refufe of thofe that were old. We have heard of attention that has been enfnared , and hopes that have been in view ; of perfpicuous ideas, of feelings of power , and of authentic intelligence imparted with candour. We do not in¬ deed pretend to difplay our candour , when W’e communicate authentic intelli¬ gence •, we do not pretend, that we are at once the fenfhility that fee's, and the power that is felt ; nor do we flatter ourfelves with hopes that are in vie w } for the hope of hope is a fubtilty to which we make no pretence. It feems, indeed, to be in the fecond remove from all that has either fubdance or value ; fome- thing like the fhadow of fmoke ; and, as fuch, we leave it to our new competitors. Thofe who have attempted to fulfil their promife, of giving more in quantity for the fame price, have, to their cod, experienced the folly of their undertaking.

Upon the whole, we hope, that, without the imputation of arrogance or va¬ nity, we may infer the impotence of future attempts to fubvert us, from the im¬ potence of the pad *, for there are few arts or powers to be exerted, that have not been exerted already ; and as we have not yet been excelled, we hope our friends will not fuppofe that we fhall be fo, till fome indubitable ted of fuperior ability fhail appear, upon a judicious and impartial examination. We may per¬ haps be allowed to obferve, upon this occafion, that whatever may be the ability or ddigence of thofe who fhall undertake a periodical work of the fame kind with, the Gentleman s Magazine , they mud want that fkill which can only be acquired by habit, and that correfpondence which is the gradual effedt of time. To our correfpondence we impute our fuperiority, not only with pleafurebut with pride ; for we are more flittered by the contributions which we receive from others, than we could be by any fuccefs that might attend what was our own. We have nothing to hope or defire, but a continuance of this literary bounty, which wc Hull, by every means in our power, labour mcefTantly to deferve. Wc


sre, indeed, indebted to others for that part of our work which is moll; our own ; an account of fuch books as feem moft to deferve the attention of the public : this we have executed in a manner very different from our cotemporaries of every clafs. We have not extruded unconneded parts, but have given an epi¬ tome of the whole : We lu.ve endeavoured to digeft the foreign news of the month into a regular feries, fo that our Hiftorical Chronicle may be confidered as a hiftory of our own times. This hiftory is frequently illuftrated with a Map of the country where any remarkable event has happened ; and tho’ this map is often fuperior in value to any that are fold for a fum equal to that for which we fell the pamphlet that contains it, we think this additional expence but a reafonable tribute to thofe, by whofe favour we are enabled to pay it.

The new map of England and Whales, which fupplies the place of a Frontifpiece to this volume, is, in many particulars, fuperior to all that have hitherto ap¬ peared upon the fame fcale, and is particularly adapted to fhew the readieft. marches to any part of our coaft, if it fhould be invaded by the French ; we hope, therefore, that the want of a Frontifpiece, which was neceffarily excluded by the expence of the map, will, upon the whole, be confidered rather as an advantage, than an imperfection.

To the public, under whole patronage our work has fubfifted Seven and Twenty Years, it is once more fubmitted, with the fame hope of favour that has been gratified fo long, and the fame zeal and attention to deferve it.

4444444444444 4 44444444 4444444*4444444 4444444444444444

To Mr Urban, on compieating the Twenty-Seventh Volume of the Gentleman’s Magazine.

^ TILL keeps thy work its equal pace, And runs with Time his annual race: Still ev’ry various Art thy friend, Thy fteps the Muses ftill attend j ^till pleas d their wonted toil purfue, Their various {trains with joy renew. "Vet Hist'ry mourns the talk affign'd, To tell the wars that wafte mankind ; Ana now with grief, and now with rage, Hei hand inlcribes the faithful page :

A thou, and horrors round are fpread, cities lack'd, and princes dead ; Uilgrace obfcures her favour'd fhore, And Britain triumphs now no more. ^ et while Hie weeps our lofs of fame, She fmiles to write our patriot’s name.

itii j >y records that venal art No more uiurps the lUtefmm's p ut i

That firm integrity prefides,

And now to better fortune guides. Again with joy her vifage glows.

When Fred’rick triumphs o’er his foes.

Immortal Fred'rick ! born to grace^ The laft decline of human race.

When Time at one great effort tried.

His utmoft force, with defp'rate pride. And gave his nobleft work at. laft,

When mortals thought hispow’r was paft. Thus, Urban, fmall compared with great,

Fhy works our wonder ftill create ;

I o thee new ftrength each year fupplies, Each year fome boafting rival dies.

7 hus ftill may worth reward enfure.

And ages h nee thy work endure.

The Gentlemans Magazine :


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CantbnDge vlpfafooto

For JANUARY 1757.

C O N T A 1 N L N G,

JWlore in Quantity auU greater Variety tjfjan any ^oob of .t&ejftmty anb 1 &nce.

I. Narrative of the murder of Henry IV. of France, byRavafflac, with the trial and pu¬ nishment of that parricide.

II. Curious paper on removing nuifances in the Street^, and preferving leaden pipes from the efFeds of long continu’d frofts.

III. On the ufefulnefs of public hofpitais, more particularly the Middlesex hofpital.

IV. Meteorologicaljournals of the weather.

V. Authentic journal of the Siege of St Philips

VI. Lifts of the killed and wounded, and ot the warlike-ftores expended in rhe fiege-.

VII. New duty propos’d on narrow wheels.

VIII. Letter from North amptonfaire concern¬ ing fome curious antiquities lately difeo- vered in making the roads thro’ that Co.

IX. Philofbphical Tranfadions epitomis’d.

^.X-Eledrical experiments by B. FrankUn.

XI. Effeds of lightning in th &f)ardjb church

, and at Darking in Surry.

XII. Obfervations on naval court martials.

XIII. Trial of the late Capt. Norris, com¬ mander of the Ejfex at the battle o {Toulon

XIV. Trialof Adm. Byng continued.

XV. Arguments againft pxercifing the mi¬ litia on Sundays.

XVI. Defence ©f Lord Anfon from the vile insinuations of a fcurrilous writer.

XVII. Cbinefe & ir, with fome account of the Mandarine, now in London.

XVIII. Poetry. The machine for the year 1 7 <57 : vbyaee to Gucrnfey : The Daw and Leathers, a fable : New Year’s ode.

XIX. Foreign History. Narrative of SGcmian. politics, fmee the conclusion of the

peace of Aix la Chapelie ; attempt to kiil the French, king, & c.

XX. Historical Chronicle. Sentence of Adm. Byng $ inhuman murder j pro¬ ceedings agiinft rioters j ftate of theHA- ujh filliery $ remarkable inllance of chii- ■djlh affedion, &lc.

XXI. Letters from the Duke de Richelieu and •M. Villain to Adm. Byng.

XXII. Lift ct Ships taken on both Sides.

XX.III. Lift of births, promotions, See.

XXIV. Books published.

XXV. Prices of ftocks and corn.

With a beautiful Perfpedive View of the Middiefex Hofpitsl, finely engraved by Rooker a Mupum^nt Plate by Walker 3 and a Chi mat Air, by the Mandarin from China.-

I..,.. - - - - - - - - - - - - - ...... , . -

By $ T L V A N U S URBAN, Gent.

LONDON: Printed by D. Henry and R. Cave, at St John's Gate Vhere complete fetts may be had in Twenty-fix Volumes, beginning with 1731.

im 1 >■ iniiiiHTimr* ri -i -


P Articular account of the murder of Henry IV. of France 3

-“ Character and condition of Ransaillac the aiTaftin ib

“-He attempts to admonifh the king 4. Forms a defign to murder him, and why ib

Manner of executing his purpofe 5 His examination before the commifli- oners of parliament ib

—Is put to the torture, but makes no difcoveries ib

—His fufferings and cruel death 6 Abfurdity of laying horfe-duUg in the ftreets, to preferve pipes from froit ib, Eafy method of doing it with cer¬ tainty and fafety 7

Some account of the Middlfex hofpital 8 Meteorolog. journals of the weather ib Authentic journal of the fiege of St Philip' s 9

Firft news of the enemy’s approach, and the meafures taken thereupon ib The enemies open their batteries at Cape Mala , and in St Philip's Town 10 —Report of a French prifoner 11

The ftore-room fet on fire by the e- neiny * ** jz

EngUJh fleet difc. by the garrifon ib T wo deferters enter the garrifon $ their report 13

—Two men defert from the garrifon, and do great mifchief by their in¬ telligence 14

- Shatter’d condition of the garrifon ib Miraculous preferv.of the guards 15 Allowance of the garrifon reduced ib Apprehenfions of a general florin 16 Orders for the gunners to keep under cover ' ib

Account of the general attack and fur render

Lilt of the killed and wounded du¬ ring the fiege _ ib

Number of the garrifon at the begin-

nmf r 18

Abltra£t of all the ammunition ex¬ pended by the garrifon in the fiege ib New duty propoled on narrow wheels ib Benefit of fuch a duty to the roads 19 Letter from horthamptonjhire concerning lome curious difeoveries in that coun^ ty in making the turnpike road ib —Remarkable burying places of the an¬ tic nt Romans 2Q

Vertebra of an enormous animal 2,1 Human fkeletons, petrify ’d oak, frag¬ ments of urns, copper coins, See. ib Ai tides in the Phil.Tranf. epitomiz’d ib









coll^X^ m?nihfbeCn 0,™tte<*’ f^at vvi11 do credit to our next month’s

that might have foremoll ,n™’y wolkrf'tta Stott T r " W

them could not be to a future period. * b“l wluch ^ the n»-lur? ef

* 4


—Number of the people in England cal¬ culated ib

Remarkable echinus ; effects of light¬ ening ; eledxical 'experiments, by B, Franklyn , Efq; of Philadelphia 22 Obfervations on court martials 23 —Some newregulat. highly neceflary ib Cond. of Ad. Matthews blameable 24 Notorious partialities in the cafe of Norris ib

—Particular account of his trial 25 —Manner of taking depofitions in fea trials 26

—Remarks on court martials in gene¬ ral 27

Propofals for amending the laws re¬ lating to them

Arguments againft exercifing the na-.

tional militia on Sundays 29

The 4th commandment of moral ob¬ ligation __ ib

—Military exercife, and the rejl enjoin’d by that commandment, utterly re¬ pugnant ib

Trial of Ad m. Byng continued 30 Land officers, their opinion of his conduct * 31

—Officers of the Ramillies , their exa¬ mination 32

Some expedients for reducing the price of corn ib

Ceinefe air, with fome account of the mandarine now in England 35

Defence of Lord Anfon from the vile in- finuations of a fcurrilous writer in a late pamphlet ’41-2


The machine for the year 1757. On Mils Molly Bolton , kill’d by a hurri¬ cane 34

A voyage to Guernfey.— The daw and feathers, a fable 3 5

Verfeson a dilh of tea. Ode for the new year 36

Foteign hiftory. Narrative of German politicks fince the cohclufion of the peace of Aix la Chapelle 37-8-9

Attempt to afTaftinate the Fr. king 40 Partial behaviour of a Spanijh gov. ib Historical Chronicle. Inhuman murder Proceedings againft rioters State of the Britifh fifhery Sentence of Admiral Byng Letter from M. Voltaire to Adm. B.

Lift of Ihips taken on both lides Births, deaths, promotions, &c.

Lilt of Books publiihed Price of ftocks and corn


Gentleman's Magazine ,

For JANUARY 1757.

The late Attempt to murder the King of France, (fee p. 40.) ha ving revived the Story > of the Murder Of Henry the IVth by Ravaillac, the Circumjlances of which are not generally remember' d> vce have judged it no unfeafonable Entertainment to give our Readers a full relation of that Affair,

A particular Account of the Murder of Henry the IVth of France, by Francis RavaiUac,wi/^ the Trial and Execution of the Criminal,

N order to exhibit a particular account of the murder of Henry IV. it will be neceflary not only to relate the fa£f, but to fhew the mo- B tives from which it was committed, and thefe can only be deduced from the charadfer and fitua- tion of the murtherer, with which it is therefore proper to begin this re¬ lation. *

Francis Ravaillac , the fon of a prac- C the flicks

hands clafped and his feet crofTed, he felt his moutlyandface covered by fome invifible agent, and was at the fame time urged by an irrefiftible impulfe to A ling the pfalms of David j he therefore fung the pfalms Dixit Dominus, Mifereret and de Profundis , quite through, and declared, that he feemed to himfelf to have a trumpet in his mouth, which made his voice llirill and loud as the lound of that inftrument in war.

The next morning as foon as he got out of bed, having made his medita¬ tion on his knees, and committed him- ielf to God as his manner was, he fat down on a low chair before the heart! 1, and having combed his head, it not being yet light, he perceived one of

Hill on fire : when he had

trtioner in the law, was born at Angou- leme , diftant from Paris about 100 lea¬ gues. When he was very young he lived with one Rofiere-s, an advocate at Angou- leme, whom he ferved as clerk and valet de chambre. He lived afterwards with

drefled himfelf, die found part of a bun¬ dle of brulh wood, and putting it on the flick that was ftill burning, he kneeled down and began to blow it in order to kindle the whole j by the glimmering light of the fire, which

ieveral attorneys, the laft of whom dy- F> brightened as he blew it, he fancied he

ing while he was in his fervice, he took " ' . . .

a little lodging, and follicited law fuits for himfelf. This praffice he continued feveral years, but with fo little advan¬ tage, that at length he quitted it, and fubfifted by inftrudfing youth.

At this time his father and mother were parted, and were fo indigent, that both fubfifted chiefly on alms. Ravail¬ lac , who was then about 30 years old, and unmarried, lived with his mother, and becoming infolvent, was thrown into prifon for debt.


faw on each fide of his face, a great num¬ ber of confecrated wafers or hofts, and below his face a roll of the fame fize with that which the prieft: elevates at the celebration of mats. Soon after he became a lay brother of the Fuillant^ but his habit wras afterwards taken from him upon account of thefe vifions, which gave him inexpreflible concern.

While his mind was in this ftate, he often reflected on the king’s breach of promife, in not compelling the hugo- nots to return to the catholic church.

He feems to have been naturally of a p and determined to go to Paris to ad-

gloomy difpofition,and enthufiaftic turn ot mind, wbfch his misfortunes height¬ ened to a degree of phrenfy. While he was in prifon, he frequently fancied himfelf furrounded with fire, fulphur, rmd iacenfe, and the fame kind of delu-

nionilh him not to neglect this du< ty any longer.

He accordingly fet out from Angou - leme , and in 14 days arrived at Paris ; when he came thither, he went feveral times to the louvre, and applied to m;u

h°ns continued after he was releafed, ny persons to introduce him to his ma- He laid, that on the Saturday night after jelly, but without effedt. Among o- (dyriflmas 1609, havingmade his medita- thers, he applied to father Daubigny , a tions as was his cuftom in bed, with his jefuit, after having heard him #elebrate


Life and Charetter of Ravaiiiac.

mafs at a houfe of that order near St An¬ thony' s-gate ; to Daubigny he not onl)t re¬ lated his purpofe to lpeak with the king, but his vifions, and his defire to be re- ftoreb to his order, pr tp be admitted among the jefuits. Daubigny , haying heard all that he had to lay, advifed him to put all thofe things out of his head, to pray to Qod, and tell his beads.

Rawaiilac pondered this anfwer in his piindj fm* could not relinquifn his

{Hirppfe of fpeaking to the king, which, tpwevep, finding it impoffible to exe¬ cute, 'he went to Dr ubigny a fecond time, and Ijiewea him a little knife on . which there was a heart and a crofs, telling him at the fame time, that the king finould be difpofed to' make war againft the hugonots.

Daubigny regarding l;im as a lunatic, difmjiTtd him with fomfe flight anfwer, arid he ftill loitered about the palace in hopes of feeing the king.

It happened that fome days after¬ wards he priet his majefty in his coach, near St Innocent's Church , and his defire to fpeak to him growing more ardent at the profpeff of Tuccefs, he ran to the coach jide and cried out. Sire , I jbe&k to you in the name of our Lord fe/us" and of the Holy Virgin, but the king put him back with a little flick, and would not hear him. After this repulfe he con¬ ceived g deilgn to kill the king, utterly defpairing oi producing any effect on bis majefty by admonition f but after leaving revolved this project often inTiis mind, he caine to no determination as to the execution of it, and after feme time returned back to Angouleme.

Here he continued in a date of great fcllicitude and anxie*)-, fometimes con- iidering his pro>e6f to kill the king as meritorious, and fometimes as unlaw¬ ful, at length, however, he went to hear mafs at the monaftery of the Fran- afean rryars in Atfgouieme , and going afterwards to con'teflion, he coni died among other things, an intention to murder, but did not fay his intention was to murder the king ; nor ^ the con teller all, a mere paiticular account of fhe fault,

His mind being ftill reftlefs and per¬ turbed, he went again to Pans , and when he entered the city, his re-olqti- on to kill the king returned ftrong up¬ on him ; he therefore took a loJ-djR* in the lqburbs of Si fasnys's, that he jniglit fie near the louvre. This lodg¬ ing, however, for fome reafon, he d?d not like, and went to neighbouring urn, with a view to hire a chamber there fiil he cculd execute his projedt. It ha* -

pened that in this inn there was no room for him, but while he was talk¬ ing tp the man that kept it, he call his eye upon a knife, {harp pointed and double edged, with a whalebone han¬ dle, that lay on the table, and a thought inftantly ftruck him, that this knife was very fit for the execution of his defign; he therefore took an opportunity to convey it away under his doublet, and having caufed a new handle of bucks- horn to be put to it, he kept it in a bag in his pocket near three weeks.

But after this, he faltered in his refolution, and at length renouncing it a fecond time, hefet ut on his jour-, ney home, and as he went along broke the point of the knife with which he had intended to commit the murder, againft a cart near the garden of Chan - taloup ; but when he came to EJlamfs , he heard fome foldlers talking in an inn at which he put up for refrefliment, a- bout an intention of the king to make war upon the pope, and transfer the feat of the holy fee to Paris. Upon this, his refolution inltantly and irre- fiftably returned ; he went out of the houfe immediately, and having tharp- ened the point of the knife that he had broken, by rubbing it on a ftone, he took the way back to Paris.

After he came to Paris a third time, he aflociated only with fryars of his own country, but to them he did not reveal his purpofe, knowing, that whenever the publick is concerned in anyconfef- fion, the prieft is obliged to reveal it. He feems, however, ftill to have been in lome degree irrefolute, for in his con- feftion to a Francifcan friar he alk’cL whether if a man was afiaulted with a temptation to kill a king, and fliculd confefs it to the penitentiary, the pe¬ nitentiary would be under a neceflity ot revealing it ; but to thi$ queftion he received no anfwer, being interupted, juft as he had putk, by another friar of the order.

Tho1 he did not ao- 3in relinquifli his j purpofe, yet he ftill doubted whether it was not fmiul, lo that he would not receive the holy communion after he had determined to commit the faff, left: this refolution having rendered him un - worthy the body of his lord, he Ihould receive it to his damnation.

Having no hope of getting ddmifllon to the king in the palace, he watched with unwearied afiiduity at the gate | °r his coming out $ and having at laft, on the {Seventeenth of May j6jo, ben him into his coach, he followed Tt


Tortured with the Brodequin.

to the place where he had before attempt¬ ed to fpeak to him and been repulfed j here the coach was flopped by two carts, and Ravaillac feeing the king lean on one fide to fpeak to M. Epernon, who was with

Que tou jours cn mon cceur Jefus J'oit le vainqueur .

In my heart let Jtfus be always conqueror.

In a fubfequent examination he was con-

him in the“wach7^r'fo" tranfportrf wlrti A fronted with Daubigny, who denied that Ra-

vaillac had ever fpoken to him on any ac¬ count. Ravaillac, however, infilled on the

enthufiaftic phrenzy, that he thought he heard a voice fay to him in an emphatic tone, now is the time, make hafte, or (< it will be paft,” upon which he ran up to the coach, and putting one foot on the fpoke of the wheel, raifed himfelf up, and drawing his knife at the fame time, ftruek the king in the fide, but finding that the knife ftopped againftone of the ribs, and did not penetrate the king’s body, he repeated his ftroke, and gave him a mortal wound near the fame place.

The king crying out that he was flain, the attention of thofe about him was im¬ mediately turned on Ravaillac , who was in- ftantly feized by one Paul No/ler, an exempt of the guards, and protected from the rage of others who would have cut him to pieces upon the fpot.

When he was fearched, there was found upon him a paper, on which was painted the arms of France with a lion on each fide, one holding a key, the other a fword, over which he had written in a diftich, this fentence,

Do not fuffer the name of God to be prophaned in thy prefence.”

There was alfo found a rofary, and a piece of coftmary root in the fhape of a heart, which he had obtained as a charm to cure him of a fever, from the capuchins, who allured him, that there was, in the infide of it, a piece of the real crofs of Jcfus Chrifi , which, however, upon breaking it, proved to be faille.

After fome days he was examined by the prelident and feveral commilfioners of the parliament, concerning his motives and his accomplices $ of his motives he gave the fame account that has been given above, and fteadily and uniformly denied that he had any accomplice or abettor.

During his examination he often wept, and faid, that though he believed at the time when he killed the king, that it was a meritorious adf, yet he was now convin¬ ced that he was permitted to fall into that delufion as a punifhment for his fins j he exprelfed the utmoft contrition for his fault, and implored God to give him grace fuffi- cient to continue till death in good faith, lively hope, and perfcdl charity.

Being Hill urged to confefs his accom- . plices, he replied with fome indignation, j: that he was incapable of undertaking for < money an a<ft which he believed to be wick¬ ed, much lefs an aft fo heinous as the mur¬ der of his prince. He anfwered all other queftiens with great calmnefs and humility, and when he figned his copfelfiop he Wffite under his name thefe lines,

truth of what he had alledged, thof at the lame time he declared he thought Daubigny a good man, and that on this cccafion his fear prevented him from declaring the fruth.

But notwithftanding the conftat^cy and j} uniformity with which he denied having any advifer, abettor, or afibciate, he was ordered to be put to the torture of the bro¬ dequin.

The brodequin is a ftnong wooden box made in the form of a boot, juft big e~ nough to contain both the legs of the cri¬ minal, which are put into it, and a wooden wedge is then driven in with a mallet be- tween thffe knees, and after that is forced quite through, a fecond of a larger fize is applied, and fometimes a third in the fame manner.

This unhd^py creature being fworn, was placed on a wooden bench, and his legs put into this machine.

D The firft wedge being driven he cried out,

1 God have mercy upon my foul, and par- f don the crime I have committed $ I never * difclofed my intention to any one.’

When the 2d wedge was driven, he faid with horrid cries and Ihrieks, i I am a fin- 4 ner, I know no more than I have decla- red, I befeech the court not to drive my foul to defpair : Oh God ! accept thefe E ( torments in fatisfadlion for my fins! 5

The third wedge was then driven lower near his feet, at which a univerfal fweat covered his body, and he fainted. Be¬ ing quite fpeechlefs, he was releafed, fome water thrown upon his face, and wine forced down his throat, by which he fooo recovered, and was conduced to chapel by F the executioner.

He was then left with two dodfors of the Scrbonne, that they might perform the duties of their office with him, and to them he again declared upon oath, that he had faid all he knew, and that no one had incited him to commit the murder.

At three in the afternoon, May 27, iCic, G he was bro’t from the chapel and put into a tumbril, when the croud was lo great, that it wa$ with the utmoft difficulty the archers could force a pafifage 5 and as foon as the prifoner appeared, that vaft multitude be¬ gan to load him with execrations.

When he had afeended the fcaffoW, the two doctors urged him to think of his fal- vation now at the clofe oflife, and to con fefs all he knew ; to which he only anfwer¬ ed as he had done before. Fire and brim- ftone being put to his right hand, holding luijfe with which ire had ftabbed the

4 king,

6 Method to prevent Water-pipes from freezing .

king;, while his bread: and other flefhy parts of his body were tearing with red-hot pin¬ cers, he- renewed his cries and prayers. Afterwards by intervals, melted lead and fcalding oil, were poured upon his wounds ; during which he fhrieked aloud, and con¬ tinued his cries and ejaculations.

He was then drawn by four horfes, for half an hour, by intervals, while the peo¬ ple of all ranks continued their curfes. Several perfons laid hold on the ropes and pull’d them with the utmoft eagernefs 3 and one of the noblefte, who was near the criminal, alighted from his horfe, that it might be put in the place «f one which was tired with drawing him. At length, when he had been drawn for a full hour by tire horfes, without being difmembred, the people, rufhing on in crowds, threw them- felves upon him, and with lwords, knives, fticks, and other weapons, they flruck, 'tore, and mangled his limbs ; and violently forcing them from the executioner, they dragged them through the ftreets with the utmoft eagernefs and rage, and burnt them, in different parts of the city. ( See more of cui (crturcSf vol. XXli. ^>. 3C3.)

Mr Urban,

Very one rauft have obferved, du¬ ring the late froft, the numberlefs* heaps of horfe dung, which had been purpofely laid in rood: of the ftreets of. this metropolis : and how much after A is dark, thefeembarras, and in fome degree endanger thofe who pafsthro’. them, efnecially on foot, every one in their turns muit have been fenfible.

As during fro ft y weather, the leaden pipes, which convey the water from the kreets into our homes, are fubjedt to lie frozen, thele heaps of dung are laid ■over luch parts of the^ftreets as the leaden pipes are conduced through, in expectation of their being thereby pro¬ tected from the effects of the fro If.

The heat of horfe dung, when lying >n hu ge heaDS in its putrefcent ftate, is acknowledged to be very confider- at?ie ; but when dung, even in this it ate, is divided into fmall parcels, and or courfe expofed to the action of cold ( air under a large furface, it quickly lolcs its heat, and becomes of the fame temperature with the ground upon y hich it lies, and of the atmofphere which furroui.ds it.

ilow little dte re lore fo gentle a bent, and of lo fhort a contmuanpe, as thele heaps >re endowed with in iiofty wea- 1 tiicr, can contribute tq thaw the water autsdy luppofcd to be frozen in the pipe.-?, or prevent its freezing therein at die’ depth 01 three or tour feet from

the furface of the ground, mull be ob¬ vious to every one, who is in the Ieaft degree converfant in thermometrical experiments and obfervations. But admitting, that it really had this power of preventing the freezing of tpe water in thofe pipes, over which it is applied, in this cafe it does no fer- vice 5 as, unlefs in very long continued and very fevere frofts, the ground in this metropolis is rarely frozen to the depths at which the wooden pipes, which convey our water, are ufually laid : and indeed in thefe the water has feldom, if ever, been known to freeze. The leaden pipes in the ftreets are laid generally at, or nearly at, the fame depth with the wooden ones 3 and unlefs the ground is frozen to the depth to which they are laid, even thefe are rarely frozen in fuch parts of their length, as are continued in the ground.

But as it muft necefiarily happen, for our greater accommodation and con¬ venience, that great lengths of leaden pipe, quite expoled to the open air, are conduced to various parts of our dwellings ; thefe indeed are fubjedi to he frozen up, and rendered ufelefe by even flight frofts 3 as